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ASE 315: Positive Guidance for Children and Youth

Course Description

This course will focus on well known theories and basic concepts associated with positive guidance and positive discipline as developed by Alfred Adler, Rudolf Dreikurs, Thomas Gordon, and others. Topics include understanding individual temperaments in children and adults, linking positive guidance to school-age development, using a wide range of positive guidance strategies to address individual needs and characteristics, exploring causes of misbehavior, identifying and addressing causes of conflict in school-age programs, and using class meetings to promote problem solving and building a classroom community. Students will also investigate the use of positive guidance strategies with children with special needs and disabilities and with those who exhibit challenging behaviors such as escalating anger, aggressiveness, and bullying. (3 credits)

Prerequisites

  • ENG 101: English Composition 1
  • ENG 102: English Composition 2
  • ASE 255: Introduction to After School Care and Education (Recommended)

Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

Students who successfully complete this course will be able to:

  1. Associate adults’ personal beliefs and background, personal style, professional goals, and goals for children with the choices individuals make about guiding children’s behavior.
  2. Identify dimensions of temperament; discuss how temperament affects how children (as well as adults) experience and interact with their surroundings and implications for guiding children’s behavior.
  3. Discuss the implications of school-age development for guiding the behavior of school-age children.
  4. Discuss the importance of laying the foundation for positive guidance through developing positive relationships with children and families.
  5. Describe Thomas Gordon’s strategies for active listening and discuss how these strategies can help teachers build relationships with children and parents.
  6. Discuss the importance of laying the foundation for positive guidance by creating an effective program environment and a supportive social context.
  7. Describe basic principles of positive approaches to guidance and discipline, including basic concepts associated with the theories and philosophies of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, two of the early proponents of positive discipline.
  8. Discuss the merits and effectiveness of positive guidance and contrast positive approaches to guidance with other approaches that include strictness, punishment, or permissiveness.
  9. Describe positive guidance strategies and tools that support and promote healthy development, foster self-discipline and self-direction, help each child feel accepted and valued, and promote a spirit of community in out-of-school programs.
  10. Define misbehavior and interpret some of the possible reasons for misbehavior.
  11. Identify a wide range of potential causes of conflict in school-age program settings and strategies for preventing, minimizing, and resolving conflicts.
  12. Discuss youth involvement in setting rules and limits, problem solving, conflict resolution, and class meetings as important components of positive guidance and effective classroom management.
  13. Define challenging behavior and describe effective positive guidance strategies for preventing and responding to challenging behavior.
  14. Discuss the importance of including children with special needs and disabilities in school-age programs.
  15. Identify and describe positive guidance strategies that can be useful when working with children who have special needs or disabilities and/or exhibit extreme temperaments, escalating anger and aggression, and bullying.

General Education Outcomes (GEOs)

Please check the applicable GEOs for this course, if any, by outcomes at GEO Category Search, or by subject area at GEO Discipline Search.

Course Activities and Grading

Assignments

Points

Weight

Discussions:
Individual postings, 2 forums per week, Weeks 1 – 8 @ 20 points each

320

32%

Written Assignments and Observation Summaries:
6 assigned topics: Weeks 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 @ 45 points each
2 assigned topics: Weeks 5 and 7 @ 40 points
2 observation summaries: Weeks 1 and 2 @ 45 points each

440

44%

Reflective Journal Entries:
1 per week, Weeks 1 – 8 @ 10 points each

80

8%

Professional Resource Portfolio:
8 entries, 1 per week, Weeks 1 – 8 @ 20 points each
(Weeks 1 – 4, submitted at end of Week 4)

160

16%

Total

1,000

100%

Required Textbooks

(Available through our online bookstore.)

  • Nelson, J, Ed.D. Positive Discipline: The classic guide to helping children develop self-discipline, responsibility, cooperation, and problem-solving skills, New York, NY: Ballentine, Books, 2006. ISBN: 0-345-48767-2
  • Fink, D. Ph.D. Discipline in School-Age Care: Control the Climate, Not the Children, New Albany, OH: School-Age NOTES, 1995. ISBN: 0-917505-07-7
  • Kaiser, B. and Fasminsky, J. S. Challenging Behavior in Young Children:Understanding, Preventing, and Responding Effectively. 4th ed. New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc., 2017. ISBN-13: 9780133802665
  • Gordon, T., Teacher Effectiveness Training, New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. ISBN: 0-609-80932-6
  • Kohn, A. Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006. ISBN-10: 1-4166-0472-3 or ISBN-13: 978-1-4166-0472-3
  • Murphy, T., Ph.D. and Oberlin, L. H. The Angry Child, New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 2001. ISBN 0-609-80751-X

Supplemental Readings and Materials

Required Resources (Provided on-line by instructor with permission of authors)

  • Article: Liden, C. B., MD, Temperament. Pittsburgh, PA: TransHealth Publishing, 2002.
  • Article: Newman, R., Important Questions to Ask about Individual Differences in Temperament, Cape Charles, VA: Newroads Media, 2005.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Who Are School-Age Kids and What Do They Need from Me? from Training New After-School Staff, New Albany, OH: School-Age NOTES, 2002.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Handling Problems and Conflicts Among School-Age Children from Training New After-School Staff, New Albany, OH: School-Age NOTES, 2002.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Helping Children Take Responsibility for Their Actions from Perspectives on Out-of-School Programs, Cape Charles, VA: Newroads Media, 2007.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Checklist of Common Causes of Conflicts in School-Age Programs, New Albany, OH: School-Age NOTES, 2002.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Helping Kids Live by the Rules in Out-of-School Programs from Perspectives on Out-of-School Programs, Cape Charles, VA: Newroads Media, 2007.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Chapters 6 – 10 (positive guidance strategies for children with ADD in after school programs, pages 68 – 113) from Helping Children and Youth with ADD Succeed in After-School Programs, Cape Charles, VA: 2007.
  • Excerpt: Newman, R., Arranging and Operating Selected Interest Indoor Interest Areas (excerpted with permission from: Developing and Operating Indoor Interest Areas, Part Two and Part Three. Washington , DC: Learning Options On-Line Course, a joint project of NACCRA, The Values Group, and Roberta L. Newman. (Copyright Roberta L. Newman, 1998.)

Optional Resources:

  • Faber, A. and Mazlish, E. (2001) How to Talk So Kids Will Listen & Listen So Kids Will Talk, (New York, NY: Avon Books (ISBN: 0-380-57000-9)
  • Kreidler, W.J., (2005) Creative Conflict Resolution: More Than 200 Activities for Keeping Peace in the Classroom, Glenview, ILL: Scott, Foresman and Company (ISBN: 0-673-15642-7)
  • Kreidler, W.J. and Furlong, L. (1995) Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for School-Age Programs, Cambridge, MA: Educators for Social Responsibility (ISBN # not available, book available from School-Age NOTES, New Albany, OH)
  • Nelson, J., EdD., Lott, L., and Glenn, S. (2000), Positive Discipline in the Classroom: Developing Mutual Respect, Cooperation, and Responsibility in Your Classroom, Revised 3rd Edition, New York, NY: Three Rivers Press (ISBN:0-7615-2421-5)
  • Whelan, M. S. (2000) But They Spit, Scratch, and Swear! The Do’s and Don’ts of Behavior Guidance with School-Age Children, Minneapolis, MN: A-ha! communications (available from School-Age NOTES, New Albany, OH) (ISBN: 0-9679925-0-8)

Additional Optional Resources may be provided.

Internet Resources:

The Search Institute: http://www.search-institute.org
Promising Practices in After School: http://www.afterschool.org
The National AfterSchool Association: http://www.naaweb.org
National Institute on Out-of-School Time: http://www.niost.org
Positive Discipline Association: http://www.posdis.org

Course Schedule

Week

SLOs

Readings and Exercises

Assignments

1

1, 2, 4, 5

  • Views on Behavior Guidance and Building Relationships with Children
  • Challenging Behaviors in Young Children, Chapter 5 (Relationships, Relationships, Relationships) pp 59-65 and 71-77
  • NAA Standards: Relationships Section
  • Family and Culture
  • Challenging Behaviors in Young Children, Chapter 6 (Understanding the Child’s Family and Culture)
  • Individual Differences in Temperament
  • Article: Temperament
  • Article: Important Questions to Ask About Individual Differences in Temperament
  • Building Relationships through Effective Communication
  • Excerpt on Active Listening from Teacher Effectiveness Training pp 60-76 and 79-90
  • Read assigned material
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #1: How beliefs and attitudes affect approaches to guiding behavior
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) What are some ways that different dimensions of temperament could affect how children experience school-age programs? 2) What are some things teachers need to remember when using Active Listening techniques with parents and children from different cultures?
  • Writing Assignment #1: Importance of Building Relationships with Children
  • Observation #1: Teacher/Child Relationships in a School-Age Program
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #1: Assemble a list of resources for building relationships with children and families from diverse cultures

2

3, 6

  • Preventing Problems in School-Age Programs by Preparing the Environment and Creating the Right Social Context
  • Challenging Behaviors…Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 (pp 123-132)
  • Linking Guidance to Developmental Needs
  • Article: Who Are School-Age Kids and What Do They Need from Me?
  • Read assigned material
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #2: Discuss ideas for using your knowledge of school-age development to guide a child’s behavior.
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) Give some examples of how designing appropriate space and program activities can prevent behavior problems in school-age programs. 2) Give some examples of how creating the right social context can promote positive interactions in school-age programs
  • Observation #2: Environment and Social Context in a School-Age Program
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #2: Develop an annotated list of at least 10 things teachers can do to create an environment and social context that encourages positive interactions among children and among children and adults in a school-age program

3

1, 7, 8, 9

  • Societal Changes Related to Guidance
  • The Positive Approach to Discipline
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter 1 (The Positive Approach)
  • Basic Concepts of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter 2 (Some Basic Concepts)
  • Read assigned chapters
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #3: Perspectives on Societal Changes and Behavior Guidance
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) What do you think are the most important ideas developed by Adler and Dreikurs? 2) Give examples of how positive guidance strategies can be used effectively in school-age programs.
  • Writing Assignment #2: Mistakes as Opportunities for Children to Learn
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #3: Create a chart that contrasts positive approaches to discipline with approaches that focus on punishment and permissiveness

4

7, 8, 9, 10

  • Causes of Misbehavior
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter 4 (A New Look at Misbehavior)
  • Discipline in School-Age Care pp 12-18
  • Exploring Natural and Logical Consequences
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter 5 (Beware of Logical Consequences)
  • Excerpt: Helping Children Take Responsibility for Their Actions
  • Discipline in School-Age Care pp 26-29
  • Read assigned material
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #4: Describe an experience where you had difficulty guiding the behavior of a child who was misbehaving; identify some of the potential causes of the child’s misbehavior (within the child and the environment) and what you might do differently if a similar situation occurred.
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) Give some specific examples of how teachers in school-age programs can use positive guidance strategies to help children take responsibility for their actions. 2) What are some of the potential dangers and problems associated with the use of both Natural Consequences and Logical Consequences in school-age programs?
  • Writing Assignment #3: Discuss the 4 R’s for Logical Consequences and give examples of how they can be used effectively by teachers in school-age programs.
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #4: Develop 8 examples of situations where logical consequences are used appropriately and are not disguised punishments.
  • Assemble first 4 Professional Resource Portfolio Entries and submit as an organized packet with summaries introducing each entry

5

7, 8, 9, 11, 12

  • Setting the Stage for Problem Solving
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter Six (Focusing on Solutions)
  • Excerpt from Teacher Effectiveness Training: The Six Step Problem Solving Process pp 227-235
  • Discipline in School-Age Care pp 31-33
  • Excerpt from Beyond Discipline: Solving Problems Together pp 120-129
  • Excerpt: Checklist of Common Causes of Conflicts in School-Age Programs
  • Scenario: Tanya’s Tantrum
  • Using Encouragement to Guide Behavior
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter 7 (Using Encouragement Effectively
  • Read assigned material
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #5: Why is it important to involve school-age children in problem solving?
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) Share some of the potential causes of conflict and related misbehavior in your program (or in a program you have observed) and discuss ways to reduce or eliminate these conflicts. 2) Why is it important to involve children in problem solving and conflict resolution in school-age programs?
  • Week 5 Scenario Analysis: Evaluate Teacher Responses to Scenario: Tanya’s Tantrum.
  • Writing Assignment #4: The Effective use of Encouragement as a Tool for Guiding Behavior
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #5: Describe Positive Time Out and design a plan for implementing Positive Time Out in a school-age program.

6

9, 11, 12

  • The Classroom as a Community
  • Excerpt: Beyond Discipline, Chapter 7 (The Classroom as Community) pp 101-119
  • Implementing Class Meetings
  • Positive Discipline, Chapter 8 (Class Meetings)
  • Involving Children in Rule-Making
  • Discipline in School-Age Care pp 19-22 and 25-26
  • Excerpt: Helping Kids Live by the Rules in Out-of-School Programs
  • Read assigned material
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #6: How do you feel about engaging in group problem solving? What are some of the challenges of group problem solving?
  • Participate in the Discussions: 1) How can teachers use step-by-step group problem solving to promote a spirit of community in school-age programs? 2) What experiences have you had with involving children in creating rules? What advice do you have for effective rule-making with children in school-age programs?
  • Writing Assignment #5: How to Implement Class Meetings in School-Age Programs
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #6: Identify 10 books providing ideas and activities for building cooperation, teamwork, and a spirit of community in school age programs

7

1, 4, 6,13, 14, 15

  • Exploring Responses to Challenging Behavior
  • Challenging Behavior in Young Children, Chapter 1 (What Is Challenging Behavior?) Chapter 9 (Guidance and Punishment), Chapter 13 (Working with Families and Other Experts)
  • Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in School-Age Programs
  • Challenging Behavior in Young Children, Chapter 12 (The Inclusive Classroom)
  • Positive Guidance of Children with ADD
  • Excerpt from Helping Children and Youth with ADD Succeed in After-School Programs, Chapters 6 – 10 pp 68-113
  • Read assigned materials
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #7: Share your perspectives on the importance of including children with special needs and disabilities in school-age programs
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) Share ideas for establishing positive relationships with parents of children with special needs and disabilities and parents of children who exhibit challenging behaviors in school-age programs. 2) Which positive guidance strategies do you think would be especially helpful in working with children with challenging behavior related to special needs and disabilities?
  • Writing Assignment #6: Develop positive guidance strategies for working with children with ADD (e.g. adapting environments, adapting activities, developing strategies to help them manage their own behavior, helping them establish relationships)
  • Professional Resource Portfolio #7: 1) Develop an extensive list of organizations in your community that provide resources for working with children with special needs and disabilities, 2) Develop a list of Web-based resources with useful information on working with children with special needs and disabilities. How could you share these resources with families?

8

1, 2, 4, 13, 15

  • Working Effectively with Angry and Aggressive Children
  • Challenging Behavior in Young Children, Chapter 10 (The WEVAS Strategy), Chapter 14 (Bullying)
  • Excerpt from The Angry Child: Chapter 3 (Ten Characteristics of the Angry Child) pp 45-77
  • Read assigned material
  • Review the Lecture material
  • Reflective Journal Entry #8: How has your past experience influenced your attitudes about children who bully, children who are victimized, and bystanders?
  • Participate in Discussions: 1) What behavior do you think is the hardest to change – behavior of children who bully behavior of children who are victimized, or behavior of bystanders? Why? 2) How can positive guidance strategies be used to deal with bullying effectively? How can teachers involve parents in helping to solve bullying problems?
  • Writing Assignment #7: Apply the WEVAS Strategy to an experience with an aggressive child
  • Professional Resource Portfolio Entry #8: Assemble an annotated list of books focusing on helping children, parents, and teachers cope with bullying and other aggressive behaviors. Include non fiction as well as fiction titles for children.
  • Submit completed Professional Resource Portfolio with 8 Entries, including introductory commentaries for each entry and a Table of Contents.